Green diesel is produced through hydrocracking biological oil feedstocks, such as vegetable oils and animal fats. Straight unmodified edible vegetable oil is generally not used as fuel, but lower-quality oil has been used for this purpose. Used vegetable oil is increasingly being processed into biodiesel, or more rarely cleaned of water and particulates and then used as a fuel. This is easier in warm or temperate climates.
Vegetable oil can also be used in many older diesel engines that do not use common rail or unit injection electronic diesel injection systems. Due to the design of the combustion chambers in indirect injection engines, these are the best engines for use with vegetable oil. This system allows the relatively larger oil molecules more time to burn. Some older engines, especially Mercedes, are driven experimentally by enthusiasts without any conversion, a handful of drivers have experienced limited success with earlier pre-"Pumpe Duse" VW TDI engines and other similar engines with direct injection.
Several companies, such as Elsbett or Wolf, have developed professional conversion kits and successfully installed hundreds of them over the last decades. Oils and fats can be hydrogenated to give a diesel substitute. The resulting product is a straight-chain hydrocarbon with a high cetane number , low in aromatics and sulfur and does not contain oxygen. Hydrogenated oils can be blended with diesel in all proportions. They have several advantages over biodiesel, including good performance at low temperatures, no storage stability problems and no susceptibility to microbial attack.
Bioethers also referred to as fuel ethers or oxygenated fuels are cost-effective compounds that act as octane rating enhancers. Although bioethers are likely to replace petroethers in the UK, it is highly unlikely they will become a fuel in and of itself due to the low energy density. When it comes to transportation fuel there are six ether additives: Ethers were introduced in Europe in the s to replace the highly toxic compound.
Examples include wood , sawdust , grass trimmings, domestic refuse , charcoal , agricultural waste , nonfood energy crops , and dried manure. When solid biomass is already in a suitable form such as firewood , it can burn directly in a stove or furnace to provide heat or raise steam. When solid biomass is in an inconvenient form such as sawdust, wood chips, grass, urban waste wood, agricultural residues , the typical process is to densify the biomass. The current processes produce wood pellets , cubes, or pucks.
The pellet process is most common in Europe, and is typically a pure wood product. The other types of densification are larger in size compared to a pellet and are compatible with a broad range of input feedstocks. The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems, such as boilers. Sawdust, bark and chips are already used for decades for fuel in industrial processes; examples include the pulp and paper industry and the sugar cane industry.
Utilities generate power, typically in the range of 5 to 50 MW, using locally available fuel. Other industries have also installed wood waste fueled boilers and dryers in areas with low-cost fuel. One of the advantages of solid biomass fuel is that it is often a byproduct, residue or waste-product of other processes, such as farming, animal husbandry and forestry. A problem with the combustion of solid biomass fuels is that it emits considerable amounts of pollutants , such as particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Even modern pellet boilers generate much more pollutants than oil or natural gas boilers.
Pellets made from agricultural residues are usually worse than wood pellets, producing much larger emissions of dioxins and chlorophenols. A derived fuel is biochar , which is produced by biomass pyrolysis. Biochar made from agricultural waste can substitute for wood charcoal. As wood stock becomes scarce, this alternative is gaining ground.
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In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo , for example, biomass briquettes are being marketed as an alternative to charcoal to protect Virunga National Park from deforestation associated with charcoal production. There are international organizations such as IEA Bioenergy,  established in by the OECD International Energy Agency IEA , with the aim of improving cooperation and information exchange between countries that have national programs in bioenergy research, development and deployment. In , Russian pulp and paper maker, Vyborgskaya Cellulose, said they would be producing pellets that can be used in heat and electricity generation from its plant in Vyborg by the end of the year.
Biofuels currently make up 3. Conventional biofuels are likely to produce between 3. Biofuels are similar to fossil fuels in that biofuels contribute to air pollution. Burning produces carbon dioxide , airborne carbon particulates , carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides. The Environmental Protection Agency has acknowledged in April that the increased use of bio-ethanol will lead to worse air quality.
The total emissions of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides will rise due the growing use of bio-ethanol. There is an increase in carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels to produce the biofuels as well as nitrous oxide from the soil, which has most likely been treated with nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrous oxide is known to have a greater impact on the atmosphere in relation to global warming, as it is also an ozone destroyer. There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues with biofuel production and use, which have been discussed in the popular media and scientific journals.
These include: Assessing Biofuels. It concluded that not all biofuels perform equally in terms of their impact on climate, energy security and ecosystems, and suggested that environmental and social impacts need to be assessed throughout the entire life-cycle. Another issue with biofuel use and production is the US has changed mandates many times because the production has been taking longer than expected. The Renewable Fuel Standard RFS set by congress for was pushed back to at best to produce million gallons of pure ethanol not blended with a fossil fuel. In the EU, the revised renewable energy directive calls for a complete ban on first-generation biofuels by Particularly fuels made from such oils such as palm oil and soy oil are being targeted.
Many of the biofuels that were being supplied in using the first-generation biofuel production procedure have been criticised for their adverse impacts on the natural environment , food security , and land use. Crutzen published findings that the release of nitrous oxide N 2 O emissions in the production of biofuels means that overall they contribute more to global warming than the fossil fuels they replace. Responsible commercialization of biofuels represented an opportunity to enhance sustainable economic prospects in Africa, Latin America and Asia.
According to the Rocky Mountain Institute , sound biofuel production practices would not hamper food and fibre production, nor cause water or environmental problems, and would enhance soil fertility. A key consideration is the minimisation of biofuel competition for prime cropland.
Some scientists have expressed concerns about land-use change in response to greater demand for crops to use for biofuel and the subsequent carbon emissions. However, no-till practices combined with cover-crop practices can reduce the payback period to three years for grassland conversion and 14 years for forest conversion. A study conducted in the Tocantis State, in northern Brazil, found that many families were cutting down forests in order to produce two conglomerates of oilseed plants, the J.
This has to do with the amount of fossil fuel the production of fuel crops involves. In addition, the intensive use of monocropping agriculture requires large amounts of water irrigation, as well as of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides.
This does not only lead to poisonous chemicals to disperse on water runoff, but also to the emission of nitrous oxide NO 2 as a fertilizer byproduct, which is three hundred times more efficient in producing a greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide CO 2. Biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on abandoned agricultural lands incur little to no carbon debt. In addition to crop growth requiring water, biofuel facilities require significant process water.
Scientific research 20th century shows that carbon dioxide emissions from all forms of surface transport are converted in a few weeks by forests, farms and oceans into biomass. This implies that a greater emphasis on sustainable forestry is very relevant for climate protection and sustainable, energy-efficient transport. Research is ongoing into finding more suitable biofuel crops and improving the oil yields of these crops. Using the current yields, vast amounts of land and fresh water would be needed to produce enough oil to completely replace fossil fuel usage.
It would require twice the land area of the US to be devoted to soybean production, or two-thirds to be devoted to rapeseed production, to meet current US heating and transportation needs. Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields and are very useful in crop rotation with cereals, and have the added benefit that the meal left over after the oil has been pressed out can act as an effective and biodegradable pesticide.
The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make biofuels. As the primary source of biofuels in North America, many organizations are conducting research in the area of ethanol production. Much of this research is targeted toward the effect of ethanol production on domestic food markets. Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is the process of building an industry out of methods of turning cellulose-containing organic matter into fuel. Companies, such as Iogen , POET , and Abengoa , are building refineries that can process biomass and turn it into bioethanol.
Companies, such as Diversa , Novozymes , and Dyadic , are producing enzymes that could enable a cellulosic ethanol future. The shift from food crop feedstocks to waste residues and native grasses offers significant opportunities for a range of players, from farmers to biotechnology firms, and from project developers to investors. As of , the first commercial-scale plants to produce cellulosic biofuels have begun operating. Multiple pathways for the conversion of different biofuel feedstocks are being used. In the next few years, the cost data of these technologies operating at commercial scale, and their relative performance, will become available.
Lessons learnt will lower the costs of the industrial processes involved. In parts of Asia and Africa where drylands prevail, sweet sorghum is being investigated as a potential source of food, feed and fuel combined. The crop is particularly suitable for growing in arid conditions, as it only extracts one seventh of the water used by sugarcane.
In India , and other places, sweet sorghum stalks are used to produce biofuel by squeezing the juice and then fermenting into ethanol. With grain sorghum currently grown on over 11 million hectares ha in Asia and on Several groups in various sectors are conducting research on Jatropha curcas , a poisonous shrub-like tree that produces seeds considered by many to be a viable source of biofuels feedstock oil. SG Biofuels , a San Diego-based jatropha developer, has used molecular breeding and biotechnology to produce elite hybrid seeds that show significant yield improvements over first-generation varieties.
Plant Research International, a department of the Wageningen University and Research Centre in the Netherlands, maintains an ongoing Jatropha Evaluation Project that examines the feasibility of large-scale jatropha cultivation through field and laboratory experiments. A group at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow , in a paper, stated they had isolated large amounts of lipids from single-celled fungi and turned it into biofuels in an economically efficient manner.
More research on this fungal species, Cunninghamella japonica , and others, is likely to appear in the near future. This organism was recently discovered in the rainforests of northern Patagonia , and has the unique capability of converting cellulose into medium-length hydrocarbons typically found in diesel fuel. Microbial gastrointestinal flora in a variety of animals have shown potential for the production of biofuels.
Recent research has shown that TU, a strain of Clostridium bacteria found in Zebra feces, can convert nearly any form of cellulose into butanol fuel. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sustainable development portal.
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Renewable energy portal Environment portal. Main article: Second-generation biofuels. Main articles: Algaculture and Algae fuel. Ethanol fuel. Further information: Biodiesel around the world. Vegetable oil refining. Vegetable oil fuel. Biofuels by region. See also: Issues relating to biofuels. Sustainable biofuels. Ethanol fuel and Cellulosic ethanol commercialization. Jatropha biofuel. Renewable energy portal Energy portal Sustainable development portal Ecology portal.
Clean Cities Food vs. Retrieved 30 May Worldwatch Institute. Retrieved Archived from the original PDF on The Evolution of Brazilian Energy and Agriculture". Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Journal of King Saud University - Science. July Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program: Biofuels from Algae" PDF. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved 16 June Archived from the original on 24 March Valcent Products. Archived from the original on 18 June High Yield Carbon Recycling". GreenFuel Technologies Corporation. Zip Mail Services, Inc.
Advance Presort Service, Inc. Louis Pre-Sort, Inc. Louis Argus and the St. Description This contract will be used by the TESS Department at the Cosand Center to provide for maintenance and repair services for Hewlett-Packard file server equipment located at all College locations. Hewlett-Packard is neither a known minority-owned nor a known woman-owned business enterprise. Funding This purchase will be funded from current operating budgets.
Advertisements are not run on items available from only one source. Description This purchase will provide one year software support for Web based reading licenses primarily used by the Meramec Campus and purchase 25 additional licenses to expand the program to Florissant Valley and Forest Park. Plato Learning will host all Web based licenses. In addition, support which has lapsed on 63 workstation LAN academic library licenses at the Metro Education Training Center and Forest Park will be brought current and renewed for one year.
Plans for phase two are to move all College licenses to Web based licenses and host the courseware in-house saving the expense of external hosting. A summary of the total cost is presented below: The recommended bidders submitted the overall best bids and meet all requirements of the bid. Bid B The evaluation of this bid, which opened August 30, , is listed below: Louis Post-Dispatch, the St. Louis American and the St. Louis Argus. Refer to Board Agenda Item 6. Description This contract will provide round-trip airfare, accommodations and tour services for up to 25 participants.
Travel will begin May 21, and end June 2, The total cost is estimated based on a quantity of twenty-five 25 participants, current fuel prices, current airport taxes and the currency exchange rate at the time of bid, all of which are subject to increase or decrease due to market fluctuations. The recommended bidder meets all requirements of the bid and achieved the overall best score. Bid — B The evaluation of this bid, which opened September 23, , is listed below: Louis Post Dispatch, the St. Description This contract will provide round-trip airfare and accommodations for up to 38 participants.
Travel will begin March 9, and end March 17, The total cost is estimated based on a quantity of thirty-eight 38 participants, current fuel prices, current airport taxes and the currency exchange rate at the time of bid, all of which are subject to increase or decrease due to market fluctuations.
Bid — B 10 The evaluation of this bid, which opened September 23, , is listed below: Description This contract will provide round-trip airfare, accommodations and tour service for up to 30 participants. Travel will begin March 9, and end March 18, The total cost is estimated based on a quantity of thirty 30 participants, current fuel prices, current airport taxes and the currency exchange rate at the time of bid, all of which are subject to increase or decrease due to market fluctuations. Bid — B The evaluation of this bid, which opened September 30, , is listed below: Louis American and the Argus.
Description This contract will be used primarily by the Science and Allied Health Departments at all College locations for the routine purchase of a wide variety of laboratory supply items, to include, but not limited to, reusable and disposable glassware, chemicals, reagents, culture media, diagnostic tests and small equipment items.
Bids were evaluated on the completeness of their bids, pricing offered, product selection, delivery services and client references. The bidders recommended for award offered the best product and service evaluation and price scores. ACE Glass, Inc. Edvotek Total Evaluation Score The cost of training services will vary on a project-by-project basis, but will be pre-approved on a fixed-price basis.
When services are required on-site, any related travel and living expenses will be reviewed and pre-authorized by College Administration prior to commencing of any related vendor work. This vendor is neither a known minority-owned nor a known woman-owned business enterprise. Funding Services rendered will be funded from operating expenses. Description This contract will be used by the Physical Facilities Departments at all College locations to provide janitorial polyliners plastic bags for office and restroom paper receptacles and for industrial shop waste and grounds keeping debris.
Bids were evaluated on price 80 points , product selection 10 points and delivery services 10 points. The recommended bidders offered the overall best pricing, achieved the highest evaluation scores and met all requirements of the bid. Eight 8 bidders were disqualified for not meeting the technical requirements of the bid. One 1 minority-owned business enterprise is included in the recommendation for award No known woman-owned business enterprises participated in this bid process.
Bid — B The evaluation of this bid, which opened September 12, , is listed below: The PE contract provides a proactive consultation report service with a Hewlett Packard engineer. The College will use this contract for special projects and to backup coverage for the Unix Administration. These systems operate in conjunction with software that allows faculty to program a wide range of simulated medical conditions in the instructional laboratory that students must then respond to with appropriate therapies and treatments.
It then subsequently provides feedback to faculty on outcomes the treatment would have produced, had it been applied to a living patient. The advantage provided by these systems is that actual medical conditions can be duplicated and therapies applied without subjecting a patient to risk of injury or discomfort. It also allows students the opportunity to practice therapies on a repetitive basis until the desired proficiency is attained.
This software is available only from the simulator system manufacturer and therefore it cannot be competitively bid. Description This contract will be used by the Physical Plant Departments at all College locations to purchase various types of paper toweling and sanitary paper products. The College typically recommends distributors of at least two manufactures be included in the award to insure availability at all times. This is a protection against spot product shortages that occur in all paper product lines from time to time. The recommended bidders offered the best overall combination of product quality, pricing, escalation caps and delivery services and meet all requirements of the bid.
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One known minority-owned and no known woman-owned business enterprise participated in this bid process. Bid — B 17 The evaluation of this bid, which opened September 7, , is listed below: Xpedx General Distribution Co. Muccigrosso Construction, Inc. Dar-Beck, Inc. Brady Construction, Inc. John Kalicak Construction, Inc. Although there have been minor modifications to the lighting over the years, it is in need of updating.
This project will replace the outdated ceiling and bring the lighting system up to current code requirements. This project will be funded from Capital budgets: Advertisements were placed with St. Louis Daily Record, St. Louis Countian, St. Minority Contractors: No known minority company received plans and specifications.
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No known minority company submitted a bid for this project. Diestelkamp Construction Company, Inc. The ceilings in the Learning Achievement Center, associated offices and testing room are the original ones installed in Even though minor alterations have been made to the lighting over the years, it is in need of being modernized. This project will replace the antiquated ceiling plus update the HVAC and lighting system to present-day code requirements. Vital work was not included in their bid price 22 Description: Seven of the Florissant Valley elevators need modifications to bring them up to State mandated code requirements.
This project will provide a wide variety of work including: In accordance with Board Policy I 4. July 1, — September 30, 5. The increase in the transfer amount is due primarily to the increase in additional planned leasehold bond payments. Louis Community College Through September 30, 5. Louis Community College Junior College District , and in compliance with the appropriation granted by the Board of Trustees as defined in the Fiscal Year Budgets, and there are sufficient balances in each fund and subfund available for the expenditures for which approval is hereto requested.
Treasury Securities U. Treasury Securities 10 U. Daily throughout month Maturity Date: Overnight Average Amount Invested: General Fund Type of Investment: Louis and St. This subsidy will allow student parents to continue to work toward a college degree without the added expense of child care. This contract begins September 1, and will continue for one year. Thirty 30 days written notice by either party may terminate the contract. The term of the agreement shall commence on October 1, and the Display Area will be open to the public between 9: Monday through Friday, excluding holidays.
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