When people are not satisfied with the decision of a High Court, they may take the matter further to the Supreme Court of Appeal. High Courts used to be called Supreme Courts and are primarily intended for more serious criminal and civil cases. They may hear some constitutional matters - with the exception of those matters that only the Constitutional Court may decide. Mpumalanga has still to decide if their High Court will be in Nelspruit their capital or Middelburg where the legislature wishes it to be.
Gauteng will have two High Courts, one in Pretoria and one in Johannesburg. There are two kinds of magistrate courts: Regional courts are higher in rank which means that they hear more serious cases than the District Magistrate Courts and may impose heavier sentences. The term "legislature" means a body of elected representatives that makes laws. The prime function of legislatures, therefore, is to formulate, debate and pass legislation which is needed for the government and the country to function.
The legislature also provides a forum in which the public can participate in issues and watch over the executive arm of government. In South Africa the national legislature is Parliament and each of the nine provinces also has a legislature. These ten legislatures function autonomously and co-operatively within the framework provided by the Constitution, particularly section 3 which outlines the obligations of co-operative governance. The National Assembly is elected to represent the people and to ensure government by the people under the Constitution.
It does this by:. Members are elected to the National Assembly through an electoral system based on proportional representation. The Constitution makes it clear that the current electoral system can be changed by a new law, provided that the new electoral system results, in general, in proportional representation. This means that candidates are appointed from party lists in proportion to the number of votes the party wins in the elections.
So if a party wins half the votes it will hold half the seats in the National Assembly.
Duties & Functions of the U.S. Department of the Treasury
The National Council of Provinces represents the provinces to ensure that provincial interests are taken into account in the national sphere of government. It does this mainly by:. The NCOP also has an important role to play in promoting national unity and good working relations between national, provincial and local government.
While the delegates in the NCOP represent their political parties, they also have the important duty of representing their provinces as a whole. Each province has ten delegates, no matter how big or small the province, thus guaranteeing a balance of interests among the provinces. There are six permanent and four "special" non-permanent delegates in each delegation. The delegation must reflect the proportional strength of the various parties in the province. In addition to the nine provincial delegations, the NCOP includes a delegation of the South African Local Government Association SALGA whose ten non-voting representatives are chosen from a group of representatives from the nine Provincial local government associations.
Each province has a legislature, the size of which varies depending on the population levels in the province. According to the Constitution the minimum size of a Legislature is 30 members and the maximum size is 80 members. Members are elected from provincial lists on the basis of the number of votes received by a political party.
A provincial legislature is responsible for passing the laws for its province as defined in the Constitution. These laws are only effective for that particular province. Parliament may intervene and change these laws if they undermine national security, economic unity, national standards or the interests of another province. Like Parliament, provincial legislatures have the responsibility of calling their Members of their Executive to account for their actions.
In addition, a second rotating Deputy Chairperson is elected for a year, enabling each province to have one of its Members elected as the second Deputy Chairperson. The Speaker in the National Assembly and in the provincial legislatures is the person who presides over the proceedings of the House and is responsible for running the legislature subject to the policy laid down by the Joint Rules Committee of Parliament.
Joint Secretary/Economic Advisor/DDG deals with the following topics :-
In the NCOP there are two deputies, one permanent and one rotating. The position of the second chairperson rotates amongst the provinces on an annual basis. These presiding officers and their deputies are elected from amongst the Members of each legislature and are expected to be fair and impartial in the execution of their duties. A majority of the Members of the Assembly must be present when the resolution is adopted. The Chairperson of Committees is appointed by the Members of a legislature.
The Leader of Government Business is chosen by the President with the consent of the Cabinet from amongst the Members of the Cabinet and represents Cabinet in Parliament. The Leader of Government Business, in consultation with the Chief Whip of the majority party, plays a crucial role in deciding on the programme of the legislature and ensuring that government business is dealt with and properly synchronised.
In provincial Legislatures, the Leader of Government Business is referred to as the Leader of the House and is appointed by the Premier. Whips contribute to the smooth running of a legislature. At the same time whips represent their party's interests and ensure the discipline of their members and the effective functioning of their party, both within the legislature as well as within the organisation.
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There are two Chief Whips who are the official office bearers. One represents the majority party and the other is from the largest minority party. The other parties have Senior Whips assisted by a number of other whips. The Chief Whips are formally appointed by the Speaker, based on the recommendations of the respective political parties. The Chief Whip of the majority party, in consultation with the Chief Whip of the largest minority party, is responsible for the detailed arrangement of the legislative business, that is, the programme of the Legislature.
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Committees do not take decisions but make recommendations to the legislature. Usually these recommendations are expressed in the form of reports to the House. Each Committee elects its own chairperson. For example there is a Portfolio Committee on Housing which addresses issues which relate to the Department of Housing.
Provincial legislatures also have committees. Both Parliament and provincial legislatures have temporary Committees, known as "Ad Hoc" Committees, which are formed to consider specific issues. They cease to exist once they have completed their mandates. Some committees are permanent structures and are known as "standing committees" such as the Public Accounts Standing Committee. However the term "standing committee" is slowly being phased out. Legislative authority is vested nationally in Parliament section 44 of the Constitution. Provincial legislative authority is vested in the provincial legislatures section of the Constitution.
The national legislative authority, as vested in Parliament, gives the National Assembly the power. Parliament may intervene in provincial legislation and make or change laws dealing with exclusive provincial matters listed in Schedule 5 of the Constitution only in the following cases section 44 Provincial legislatures are bound only by the national Constitution and by their own Constitution, if they have one.
A provincial legislature can, with a two-thirds majority, request Parliament to change the name of that province. Toggle navigation. Premium content from before is now available for everyone! The Structure of the National Executive: Duration of the Presidency A person may serve as President for no more than two terms.
The President assigns powers and functions to the Minister and may dismiss them. Responsibilities of Ministers The President allocates specific responsibilities known as a "portfolios" to each Minister to supervise. These are: Accountability Ministers are accountable to the National Assembly for their actions and for those of their departments and they must act according to government policy.
Term After the dissolution of Parliament, the Cabinet continues to function until the next National Assembly elects a new President and a new Cabinet is appointed. Deputy Ministers While Deputy Ministers are not Members of the Cabinet, they are required to assist the relevant Ministers in the execution of their duties. The Premier The Premier is elected by the Members of that Provincial Legislature MPLs from amongst themselves at the first sitting of that legislature after the election.
Non-compliance It is the responsibility of national government to build the administrative capacity of the provinces. The Judiciary Judicial authority is vested in the courts, which are independent and subject to the laws of the Constitution. The courts are: The disputes may concern the constitutional status, power or functions of any of those organs of state; the constitutionality of any national or provincial Bill or Act; the constitutionality of any amendment to the Constitution; the possible failure of the Parliament or the President to fulfil a constitutional obligation; or certifying a provincial constitution.
Supreme Court of Appeal The Supreme Court of Appeal is the highest court of appeal except in constitutional matters, and may hear only appeals; issues connected with appeals; and other matters that may be referred to it in circumstances defined by an Act of Parliament. The Supreme Court of Appeal is located in Bloemfontein.
It is presided over by five judges. High Court High Courts used to be called Supreme Courts and are primarily intended for more serious criminal and civil cases. Each province has a High Court which is usually situated in the capital. Greenwood Publishing Group. September 2, Retrieved Department of the Treasury. Retrieved 6 May Mnuchin and Carranza signatures now on the dollar bill".
USA Today. The Associated Press. George Washington Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. The Magazine of the National Endowment for the Humanities. Currency Education Program. The New York Times Company. Treasurer, U. Department of the Treasury". The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol.
New York: Columbia University Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: Updated 26 April Accessed 11 November October July 2, Accessed November 11, Agencies under the United States Department of the Treasury. Federal executive departments of the United States of America. Patriot Act.
Butch Otter. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Authority control GND: Retrieved from " https: United States Department of the Treasury United States federal executive departments establishments in the United States Finance ministries Financial regulatory authorities of the United States Ministries established in Robert Mills buildings.
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The Community Development Financial Institution CDFI Fund was created to expand the availability of credit, investment capital, and financial services in distressed urban and rural communities. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network FinCEN supports law enforcement investigative efforts and fosters interagency and global cooperation against domestic and international financial crimes.
It also provides U. The Inspector General conducts independent audits, investigations and reviews to help the Treasury Department accomplish its mission; improve its programs and operations; promote economy, efficiency and effectiveness; and prevent and detect fraud and abuse.
U.S. Department of State
The Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration TIGTA provides leadership and coordination and recommends policy for activities designed to promote economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in the administration of the internal revenue laws. The Internal Revenue Service. It is responsible for determining, assessing, and collecting internal revenue in the United States.